Note: This is a part of a comprehensive step-by-step approach for creating a Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) program. Check out the main topic page, CBDRR Practitioners Guidelines, to learn more about the full guidelines.
This is where the community begins implementing its risk reduction project with the support of the NS. This may include both physical and non-physical risk reduction measures. Physical measures include the provision of disaster response equipment and implementation of mitigation projects. Non-physical activities included training, drills and simulation, the creation of contingency funds and advocacy to external actors.
What do I need to know?
Why is this important?
Community-led implementation is the end result of a long process of engagement with the communities, which included the program design, entry in the community, VCA, planning and project baselines. The aim is to increase the community understanding of the risks they face, contribute to behavioural change and make communities more safe and resilient to the crisis they encounter by enhancing their preparedness, early warning, mitigation and advocacy skills.
Activities should be planned based on a clear link to the needs and vulnerabilities identified by the community. Any solutions should build on existing capacity and knowledge and should have been identified by the community through its VCA process.
Without the community demonstrating by this stage that they are committed to the proposed actions, activities are unlikely to be continued after the project ends.
What are key questions which need to be considered in supporting the community to implement their plan?
- Depending on the analysis tools used, what solutions are appropriate to the problems identified, and has the community gone through a process of understanding them, and identifying relevant activities to address them?
- What resources can the community identify and invest in for project implementation?
- What internal knowledge and capacities can the community draw upon and strengthen?
- Does the implementation of the risk reduction and response plan require specific technical expertise? How will this be accessed?
- In the likelihood that there are competing needs and priorities, what activities that the NS can support that will have the greatest benefit to the most vulnerable, and be most cost effective?
- In addition to this, what activities could be undertaken by other stakeholders, and how can they best be involved in the planning process to secure their engagement?
- Finally, what issues will be beyond the community, the NS and the willingness of other stakeholders to support, and how can this be addressed through advocacy?
- Is the community DRR plan realistic to the time and capacity available?
- Is the NS support plan realistic to their capacity and resources available? Has the NS set aside sufficient resources (time and money) to support implementation?
- If a simulation exercise is planned, who should coordinate it and update the Community Contingency Plans? Does it need to be repeated on a regular basis? If so, how will this be sustained after the project ends?
- What equipment should be provided to each community and how can this be standardised when implementing CBDRR at scale? How will this be maintained, stored and replenished during and after project completion?
- How can sustainability of micro-mitigation projects be ensured?
- How can mitigation projects be integrated with programmes in other sectors and maximise multi-sectoral impacts?
- Should a Community Contingency or Emergency Fund be provided and has the community received adequate training? How will it be managed after the end of the project?
- How can external stakeholders be engaged in the development, implementation and monitoring of the risk reduction plan?
- Have community accountability mechanisms been built in to the process e.g. regular feedback meetings by DRR groups to the wider community on the use of emergency funds, annual reporting, development of new plans etc.?
What are the basic steps in supporting community-led implementation?
- Review the results of the project and programme baselines with the community along with their draft community plan. Does anything need to be changed or updated based on the baseline results?
- Are roles and responsibilities clear?
- Is there a community-led M&E plan? Is this plan aligned to and included in the overall community plan?
- Is the community plan posted in a public place?
- Ensure there is a logical order to the activities; for example are there basic trainings that need to be carried out prior to implementing certain interventions?
- An early activity might involve setting up community disaster response teams (or action teams), providing first aid and leadership training, equipping of action teams etc.
- Awareness raising activities might also need to be carried out early such as safer housing awareness, climate change and environmental awareness, hygiene awareness, school awareness activities etc.
- Other key interventions could include:
- Developing community disaster plans, supporting contingency planning, family disaster plans, identifying evacuation routes and shelter locations.
- Carry out simulations and community drills
- Implement mitigation projects:
- Structural: dike construction, hazard-resistant house construction, planting mangroves, drainage channels, water conservation measures
- Non-structural: land-use planning, public education
- Developing early warning systems
- Contingency funding, stockpiling of relief supplies
- Advocacy activities vis-à-vis local authorities and other stakeholders
What are some success factors or key determinants?
By now most of the key determinants have been covered. Please go to the introductory section to review the common and most important success factors in CBDRR programming.
- Risk reduction activities should correspond to both the VCA analysis and the community’s risk reduction plan.
- Drills and simulations should address the most pressing concerns of communities and appropriate equipment should be provided.
- Micro-mitigation projects should be community-driven, achieve multiple objectives and be integrated with projects in other sectors. However unless building on proven local knowledge, they should be validated by someone with the technical expertise to ensure they are appropriate and relevant.
- Advocacy to external partners can significantly increase the sustainability of programme impacts, as can the inclusion of training for CBOs in the maintenance, repair and replacement of equipment as well as project & financial management, advocacy and fundraising.
What are some useful tools and methodologies?
- CRT Handbook
- Templates for: 1) DRR Plans, 2) Family DP guidelines
- Contingency Planning Guide
- EWS Guide
- VCA Guidebooks
- Public Awareness and Public Education Key messages
- Advocacy guide
- Volunteers management toolkit
- DRR in Schools guideline (SEA)
- CDRT Team Equipment list
- Safer housing toolkit/guide
- Global First Aid guidelines
- Well Prepared Nation Societies checklist
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