Note: This is a part of a comprehensive step-by-step approach for creating a Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) program. Check out the main topic page, CBDRR Practitioners Guidelines, to learn more about the full guidelines.
Using the same data collection methods as the baseline, the endline data is compared to the original data for analysis of programme and project impact and how it was achieved. The baseline is one of several tools within the M&E system that provides information on achievements and informs learning.
As with the baseline, the endline can be for the whole programme, the community projects or both. Ideally communities would conduct simple endlines as their projects come to an end and the National Society would conduct an overall endline near the end of the programme strategy.
Comprehensive baselines and endlines are nearly always survey-based. The methods chosen for the endline need to mirror that of the baseline to ensure comparability of the data.
What do I need to know?
Why is this important?
Endlines provide valuable evidence of change in communities and are a useful tool to discuss how well the community has progressed since the inception of the project. Depending on the sampling method, they can provide concrete evidence of change across the entire programme area. Endlines are also used to capture learning that can help inform the design of the final evaluation as well as the design of new interventions. Endlines will tell you ‘what’ has changed or ‘how much’ change has occurred while evaluations (the next step) should tell you ‘why’ that change has occurred.
What are key questions which need to be considered in planning the endline?
Planning an endline is nearly identical to planning a baseline. Revisit the baseline step for guidance. A few additional considerations include:
- Is the endline for the community project level or for the CBDRR programme as a whole? Or will one event cover both?
- What interventions and indicators changed during the course of the project or programme? This will require changes in the questions to be asked in the endline.
- Is there a due date for the final evaluation? The endline should inform the final evaluation. Note, endline and final evaluation are not the same thing; the endline should be done far enough in advance so that it can be useful to the final evaluation.
- If it is a project endline, is it clear if both a project endline and a project final evaluation are needed? Will a programme endline suffice, allowing the community to focus on other participatory final evaluation methods such as ‘most significant change’? See references below for more information.
- How are results shared and discussed with the community and other stakeholders? How will they be used to support the design of future interventions?
What are the key steps?
Revisit the baseline section for guidance on planning the endline as the processes are quite similar.
What are some success factors or key determinants?
- Household, survey-based endlines are most effective for longer term projects (more than 3 years) as significant time needs to pass before change can be detected or measured.
- Ensure there are sufficient resources to support the entire process especially data quality (e.g. sampling, piloting, supervision, data entry etc.).
- Determine if there have been major changes in the community structure since the original baseline was conducted. If yes, the endline survey will need to be updated.
- Community and branch leaders should be notified about the timing and purpose of the survey well in advance.
- Surveys can take several months to plan and implement. Be sure to allocate enough time for the process.
- Ensure that the data is protected to respect people’s privacy.
- Be sure to share the results and their analysis with key stakeholders and community members.
Use technology where appropriate. Hand-held devices and mobile phones are frequently used to support household surveys. See http://www.ifrc.org/ramp for more information.
What are some useful tools and methodologies?
There are a range of web-based documents on conducting household surveys and questionnaires, sampling, training, enumerators.
- IFRC Project/Programme M&E Guide. Geneva Switzerland, 2011.
The Most Significant Change (MSC) Technique – A Guide to Its Use. Davies, R. and J. Dart. Version 1. April 2005.
IFRC. Rapid Mobil Phone-based (RAMP) Survey: An innovation for health surveys. Geneva, Switzerland. Health Division. 2012.
American Red Cross, International Services - M&E Toolkit Under development .
Vietnam baseline tools, Vietnam Red Cross
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