Better Programming Initiative (BPI) analysis in six countries has demonstrated that the beneficiaries targeted by the International Federation of the Red Cross Red Crescent Societies, the staff hired, the sources used to inform needs assessments, the type of programmes implemented and the way assistance is delivered can add to tension and increase conflict. The experience also suggests that thorough context analysis and programme planning can help to avoid such negative impacts and, critically, help identify alternative options for better programming that strengthen people’s links with each other and promote recovery. During 2002, BPI has been successfully introduced in other, non-conflict-related contexts and has been integrated with other planning and assessment tools in the project management cycle to promote a more holistic approach to programming. This publication presents the key lessons from the use of the BPI. Published in 2003.